Sonography is generally the first and often the only imaging modality used to demonstrate pelvic anatomy and to document physiological (ovulation monitoring) or pathological changes. Ultrasound examination may be performed by the transabdominal / transvaginal / transrectal or transperineal approach.
Transabdominal Ultrasonography (TAS)
Transabdominal ultrasonography is performed on a patient with a full bladder. A 3.5 to 5.0 MHz sector or curvilinear probe is routinely used to obtain a global view of the pelvis.
Transvaginal Ultrasound (TVS)
Transvaginal Ultrasound uses intracavitary probes to visualize the pelvis. The proximity of the probe to the pelvic organs and the use of higher frequency (5.0 - 7.5 MHz) transducer yields higher resolution images.
- To differentiate normal from abnormal gestation in early pregnancy-blighte ovum, molar pregnancy, incomplete abortion, and retained products of gestation.
- To diagnose multiple gestation.
- Presence of IUCD with pregnancy.
- Presence of an ectopic pregnancy.
- Ovulation monitoring and retrieval of oocytes.
- Assessment of endometrial thickness.
- To confirm presence of fibroids in the uterus, their numbers, size and location.
- To detect ovarian pathology like presence of cysts, tumours, polycystic ovaries.
- Location of a misplaced IUCD.
- Sonosalpingography to demonstrate patency of the tubes.
- Postmenopausal bleeding - to determine endometrial thickness for suspected hyperplasia / polyp / malignancy.